Depth of the Ocean All measurements of depth, by which we ascertain the relief of that part of the earth’s crust covered by water, are referred to the sea-surface; the measurements of height on the land are likewise referred to sea-level.It is admitted that the ocean has a very complicated undulating surface, in consequence of the attraction which the heterogeneous and elevated portions of the lithosphere exercise on the liquid hydrosphere.
In his opening address to the members of the British Association, at the Ipswich meeting, the President cast a retrospective glance at the progress that had taken place in the several branches of scientific inquiry from the time of the formation of the Association in 1831 down to 1895, the year in which were published the last two of the fifty volumes of Reports containing the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H. The study of marine phenomena had hitherto been almost entirely limited to the surface and shallow waters of the ocean, to the survey of coasts and of oceanic routes directly useful for commercial purposes. At the surface of the ocean, direct observation is possible, but our knowledge of the conditions prevailing in deep water, and of all that is there taking place, is almost wholly dependent on the correct working of instruments, the action of which at the critical moment is hidden from sight.
This omission may be accounted for by the fact that, at the time of the formation of the British Association, knowledge concerning the ocean was, literally speaking, superficial. The difficulties connected with the exploration of the greater depths of the sea arise principally from the fact that, in the majority of cases, the observations are necessarily indirect.
In that very able and detailed review there is no reference whatever to the work of the numerous expeditions which had been fitted out by this and other countries for the exploration of the depths of the sea, nor is there any mention of the great advance in our knowledge of the ocean during the period of sixty-five years then under consideration.
The most profound abysses of the ocean are now being everywhere examined by sailors and scientific men with increasing precision, rapidity, and success.
The soundings over the water-surface of the globe have accumulated at a rapid rate during the past fifty years.
In the shallow water, where it is necessary to know the depth for purposes of navigation, the soundings may now be spoken of as innumerable; the 100-fathom line surrounding the land can therefore often be drawn in with much exactness.In the following essay, Sir John Murray describes the then state of knowledge of the oceans of the world; and like Edward Forbes, many years before, ends his essay with a plea for funding, both from the government and private individuals for, not oceanic exploration, but the exploration of the Antarctic regions. Since the Challenger Expedition there has been almost a revolution in the methods employed in deep-sea observations. Down to that time there had been no systematic attempts to ascertain the physical and biological conditions of those regions of the earth’s surface covered by the deeper waters of the ocean; indeed, most of the apparatus necessary for such investigations had not yet been invented. This section of the map shows the Mid-Atlantic Ridge as well as all areas of the Atlantic Ocean and eastern Pacific Ocean where depths greater than 3,000 fathoms (deeps) had been discovered. It was the desire to establish telegraphic communication between Europe and America that gave the first direct impulse to the scientific exploration of the great ocean-basins, and at the present day the survey of new cable routes still yields each year a large amount of accurate knowledge regarding the floor of the ocean.It is not my intention on this occasion to attempt anything like a general review of the present state of oceanographic science.But, as nearly all the samples of marine deposits collected during the past thirty years have passed through my hands, I shall endeavour briefly to point out what, in general, their detailed examination teaches with respect to the present condition of the floor of the ocean, and I will thereafter indicate what appears to me to be the bearing of some of these results on speculations as to the evolution of the existing surface features of our planet.When you are aware of all characteristics of good titles, you’re bound to make wise decisions and complete this part of essay writing process successfully.Just like argumentative or some other types of essays have their outline formula you can use to write a high-quality paper, building your title has its own formula too.The year 1899 had been preceded by a quarter century of intense ocean exploration. Immediately before the Challenger Expedition there was a marked improvement in all the apparatus used in marine investigations, and thus during the Challenger Expedition the great ocean-basins were for the first time systematically and successfully explored.Discoveries and innovations had marked the science of oceanography during this period. This expedition, which lasted for nearly four years, was successful beyond the expectations of its promoters, and opened out a new era in the study of oceanography.Our knowledge of the ocean is still very incomplete.So much has, however, already been acquired that the historian will, in all probability, point to the oceanographical discoveries during the past forty years as the most important addition to the natural knowledge of our planet since the great geographical voyages associated with the names of Columbus, Da Gama, and Magellan, at the end of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth centuries.