Due to this unequal sharing, the chlorine atom possesses a slightly negative character and the hydrogen atom a slightly positive character, a condition described by the term polar (The Chemical Bond, 2009).
In this experiment, the two reactants stated above are combined to form a salt, calcium chloride.
The controlled variables in this experiment include the volume of hydrochloric acid, the mass of the marble chips and environmental conditions.
30m L of hydrochloric acid was measured and reacted with the marble chips.
The rate at which a chemical reaction proceeds depends on various factors such as the temperature, pressure of catalyst, physical state of reactants, reactant structure and the concentration of reactants (Graham, 1978).
This report will investigate the influence of the concentration of reactants on the reaction rate by discussing an experiment which involves the reactants marble chips and hydrochloric acid.
The volume of carbon dioxide produced is therefore measured by determining the volume of water displaced.
The concentration of the hydrochloric acid was varied throughout the experiment. In this experiment, 4g of marble chips reacted with 30m L of one molarity of hydrochloric acid to prove that concentration has strong correlation with reaction rate.
The dependent variable describes what will be measured or observed, the independent variable elucidates what is varied during the experiment and the controlled variable is the factor that is held constant during an experiment (Martin, 2011).
In the fundamentals of combining hydrochloric acid (HCl) and marble chips (Ca CO3), the independent variable was the concentration of hydrochloric acid; the dependent variable was the volume of carbon dioxide produced and the controlled variables included the volume of hydrochloric acid, the mass of the marble chips and the environmental conditions.