# How Do We Solve Problems

Well-defined problems have specific goals and clear expected solutions, while ill-defined problems do not.

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A important step in this direction was made by Cordell Green in 1969, using a resolution theorem prover for question-answering and for such other applications in artificial intelligence as robot planning.

The resolution theorem-prover used by Cordell Green bore little resemblance to human problem solving methods.

In addition, people in computer science spend a surprisingly large amount of human time finding and fixing problems in their programs -- debugging.

Formal logic is concerned with such issues as validity, truth, inference, argumentation and proof.

In response to criticism of his approach, emanating from researchers at MIT, Robert Kowalski developed logic programming and SLD resolution, Problem solving is used when products or processes fail, so corrective action can be taken to prevent further failures.

It can also be applied to a product or process prior to an actual failure event—when a potential problem can be predicted and analyzed, and mitigation applied so the problem never occurs.The next step is to generate possible solutions and evaluate them.Finally a solution is selected to be implemented and verified.In a problem-solving context, it can be used to formally represent a problem as a theorem to be proved, and to represent the knowledge needed to solve the problem as the premises to be used in a proof that the problem has a solution.The use of computers to prove mathematical theorems using formal logic emerged as the field of automated theorem proving in the 1950s. Shaw, as well as algorithmic methods, such as the resolution principle developed by John Alan Robinson.Solving problems sometimes involves dealing with pragmatics, the way that context contributes to meaning, and semantics, the interpretation of the problem.The ability to understand what the goal of the problem is, and what rules could be applied, represents the key to solving the problem.Interpersonal everyday problem solving is dependent upon the individual personal motivational and contextual components.One such component is the emotional valence of "real-world" problems and it can either impede or aid problem-solving performance.Some of the problem-solving techniques developed and used in philosophy, artificial intelligence, computer science, engineering, mathematics, or medicine are related to mental problem-solving techniques studied in psychology.The term problem solving means slightly different things depending on the discipline.

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