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Enzymes do not always work alone when they catalyze -- speed up -- a reaction.Sometimes enzymes need co-factors to help them bind to and modify substrates.
p H is the measure of how many protons -- positively charged hydrogen atoms -- are in a solution.
The amount of protons can affect the intra-molecular interactions that hold proteins in shape.
Testing the effect of enzyme concentration on enzyme activity requires a number of factors to be held constant.
Understanding how enzymes function will make sense of why each factor needs to be fixed in place.
Enzymes are produced in the cells of the body and affect the rate of almost all the chemical reactions which take place in living organisms.
The rate of enzymes activity is influenced by temperature, p H, and substrate concentration.
Increasing the temperature of the reaction makes all atoms and molecules vibrate faster, which can speed up enzyme activity.
Too high of a temperature will denature, or unfold, the enzyme, meaning there will be no more activity.
Enzymes are proteins that only function properly when they are in their proper three-dimensional shape.
Protein structure is determined by intra-molecular interactions, or interactions between atoms within a protein.