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Another trait commonly associated with risk taking and rule breaking, as well as alcohol-related problems, is impulsivity (von Knorring and Oreland, 1996).
Several studies have found that drunk driving is associated with a lower income (Baum, 2000; Golias and Karlaftis, 2002), a lower educational level and is more frequent among blue-collar workers (Baum, 2000).
However, some studies have not found any association between drunk driving and socio-economic measures (Wilson and Jonah, 1985; Grunewald, 1996).
Impulsivity is defined by a range of various tendencies, including rapid and thoughtless action, low self-control, risk-taking and the inability to hold back one's desires.
It is known that genetic factors predict about half of the variance of personality traits, depending on the variety of environmental impacts.
Drunk drivers have been found to break other traffic rules more frequently, including driving without a driving licence (Baum, 2000; Begg ., 2003), not using a seat belt, and exceeding the driving speed limits (Golias and Karlaftis, 2002).
Personality traits are the underlying factors affecting peoples' estimations, attitudes and behavioural decisions.
Predictive traffic behaviour measures were seat belt use and paying for parking.
Among the impulsivity measures, dysfunctional impulsivity was the best predictor; platelet MAO activity and age also had an independent predictive value.
The amount of alcohol consumed during the previous week before the study was evaluated on the basis of the amount of different alcoholic drinks and was expressed in grams of pure alcohol.
The score of alcohol-related problems was obtained by summing up five questions based on the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse, relating to specific life events (having ‘turned aggressive while drunk’, having ‘had longer periods of alcohol use’, having ‘had conflicts with friends and family’, having ‘been absent from work’, and having ‘lost one's job’; reported as present or not, total score 0–5).